Roller Derby is a full contact sport where athletes strap on roller skates, helmets, elbow and knee pads, wrist guards, and a mouth guard, that is played on flat or banked track. The game or bout, is made up of two 30 minute halfs that are broken down into jams that can last up to 2 minutes. For each jam teams field 5 skaters onto the track, 4 blockers and a jammer. One of the blockers is known as the pivot and have a helmet cover or “panty” that has a stripe down the middle, and the jammer is designated by the helmet cover with a star on it. Jammers are the point scorer and have to make it through the pack as pass the opposing team players at the hips in order to score points. One jammer is deemed the “Lead Jammer” and have the ability to call the jam off at anytime as long as they remain out of the penalty box. Players who receive penalties are sent to the penalty box for 30 seconds before they can return to play. Points and penalties are called by referees who are on the inside and outside of the track watching the jammers and the pack of blockers as it goes around the track. While referees are also on skates, there are individuals who are not on skates and play a vital role in a game. Those individuals are Non-Skating officials (NSOs) and they keep track of penalties and points, time penalities and jams, as well run the score board and track each teams line of players for each jam.